Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice

Please respond to a classmate discussion most especially the cosmic question with reference (LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2018). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. St. Louis,, MO: Elsevier)

1. Minimizing bias and decreasing threats to internal validity is important to experimental designs. How will a researcher use the three criteria, manipulation, randomization, and control to minimize bias and decrease threats to internal validity?
Internal validity wants to prove whether it was the independent or dependent variable the one that made the change in the research (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, p. 156). If the researcher allows for threats; such as manipulation, randomization and control, interfere with the research it can compromise the outcome of the study, it’s overall strength, and the quality of the evidence found (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, p. 156). To decrease threats to internal validity the researcher can do the following;

· Randomization – the researcher will distribute the subjects of the study to the control or experimental group on a random basis. This will decrease selection bias, as well as ensuring that all the other possible variables that can affect the study will be randomly distributed, minimizing systematic bias (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, p. 167).

· Control – the researcher will ensure that the independent variable, randomization, use of the control group, preparations and data collection are all consistent throughout the study. This will limit the bias that can influence the dependent variables (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, p. 167).

· Manipulation – the researcher will manipulate the independent variable, usually on the experimental group, so that the effects of this manipulation can be measured. Once measured the results can be compared with the dependent variable and see the effect it had on the experimental group (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, pp. 167-168).

2. Many times, researchers state that randomized clinical trials (RCT) provide the strongest level of evidence for an individual study when using an evidence-based model. As a researcher, why do you think this statement is true?
A randomized controlled trial minimizes bias and error because the researcher is able to use randomization, control, and manipulation throughout the study. This gives RCT a level II of evidence, which reduces bias and help identify cause-and-effect relationships during a study (Glasofer & Townsend, 2019).

3. When conducting an experimental design, how will you as a researcher, use intervention fidelity to increase the strength and quality of the evidence provided by the findings of the study?
Whenever I, as a research perform a study, I will ensure that I am consistent an uniform, throughout the whole study (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, p. 247). I will ensure that the intentions of the study are clear from the start, that the participants and other researchers are informed about their roles and expectations, and that the experimental interventions are clearly defined (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, pp. 150-151).

4. What is your cosmic question? (This is a question you ask your peers to respond to based on the chapter discussed in class this week i.e. Quantitative studies).
Let’s say that you are performing a research study, but you are unable to find enough individuals willing to participate in your study. Even with few individuals, you still decide to go ahead with your study. How can the lack of subject affect the validity of this study?



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