California Indians: History

For Blog #5, please answer all parts of the prompt and be sure that your initial post reaches the full 400 word minimum requirement.

1) How did Indigenous peoples resist during the time period of the missions? Be sure to provide specific examples from our materials.

2) How does the term “Manifest Destiny” relate to the chapter “Sea to Shining Sea” from our textbook? Be sure to provide specific examples from the textbook. (ill worry about textbook part, maybe just answer around that part

3) What were your reactions to Deborah Miranda’s article? What stood out to you, and why?

4) How does your K-12 education relate to or differ from the experiences mentioned in Lim’s article article? Why might this be problematic? How might this problem be resolved, or what does Lim advocate for in the article?

5) In the article “What the ‘California Dream’ Means to Indigenous Peoples,” how does the author define the “California Dream”? What does the “California Dream” mean to Indigenous peoples? What solution does Chilcote suggest?

AMIND 440: Week 10 Lecture Notes

Slide 1: Welcome to Module 10. This week, we will be moving forward in time from last week’s discussion of Indian Removal in the southeastern states in the 1830s, to the California Gold Rush of the 1850s and westward Expansion of the United States.

Slide 2: Map of California Indian tribes.

Slide 3: Before we can discuss the California Gold Rush, we must discuss the Spanish colonization of California, the Mission Systems, and their effects on California Indians. Please click on the hyperlink provided on this slide to watch a short 7 minute video on California Native Perspectives of the California Missions.

Slide 4: Although Spanish colonization and missionization of California began in the mid to late 1700s, the Zebulon M. Pike Expedition marked the beginning of the United States Colonization of what was considered North Mexico. From 1806-1807, during Jefferson’s presidency, Pike and a small group of soldiers were gathered to illegally enter “Spanish” territory to gather information to later be used for military invasion.

Slide 5: Under the guise of being “lost,” Pike’s crew “discovered” Pike’s peak and built a fort in present-day southern Colorado (during the same year as Lewis and Clark’s expedition into Louisiana Purchase territory.) Pike and his men were captured by Spanish officials and taken to Chihuahua, Mexico.

Slide 6: Throughout the expedition, Pike and his men observed and took notes on North Mexico, locations, resources, military, etc, and their findings were published in The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike in 1810. Before Pike’s publication, US merchants showed little interest in trading in Mexico.

Slide 7: After three centuries of Spanish colonization, the new republic of Mexico emerged from war as a liberatednation in 1821. However, Mexico was in a weak position to defend territory against U.S. aggression, and the U.S. saw the perfect opportunity for expansion without European imperialist powers in the way.

Slide 8: Once independent, Mexico immediately opened borders for trade (previously not allowed by Spanish authorities), and U.S. traders based in St. Louis began extending their business to New Mexico. U.S. traders would help pave the way to U.S. political control of northern Mexico. Christopher Houston “Kit” Carson of New Mexico also played a major role In a success of U.S. invasion of northern Mexico by attracting and monopolizing on fur trade with Indigenous trappers with the ultimate goal of U.S. annexation.

Slide 9: U.S. citizen residents laid the groundwork for annexation of Mexico in Texas and California as well. From 1813-1828, laws authorizing private property land grants in the province of Texas were enacted, which allowed for the granting of land to individuals, including foreigners. Many grants were sought by and granted to slave-owning Anglo-American entrepreneurs, despite slavery being illegal in Mexico. Anglo slave-owners began dominating the province, which led to Mexico’s loss of Texas in 1836, during Jackson’s presidency, which is the time period where we left off last week.

Slide 10: In sum, information gathered by the Pike expedition, led to the infiltration and settlement of Northern provinces, occupation by U.S. entrepreneurs, and ultimately military invasion and war. The U.S. occupied Mexico City until the Mexican government agreed to cede its northern territories in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalipe Hidalgo, leading to the establishment of the following U.S. states: Texas, California, Nevada, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.

Slide 11: In early 1848, just days after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, ending the Mexican-American War, gold nuggets were found in Sacramento valley at Sutter’s Mill. News of gold discovery spread, leading to thousands of would-be gold miners traveling over land across mountains or by sea (through Panama or around Cape Horn.)

Slide 12: In California, the settler population went from 800 in 1848 to an estimated 100,000 by 1849. This rapid increase in settler population eventually sped of up the process of California achieving statehood by 1850. Gold seekers from all over the world brought disease, starvation, rape, torture, and death to Indigenous peoples in the sought-after goldfields all while wiping out food sources and natural resources. U.S. occupation and settlement exterminated more than 100,000 California Native peoples by 1870. Throughout the readings this week, we will learn more details about the California Missions and the Gold Rush as well as the ways in which California Natives actively resisted the horrors of both. We will also consider the ways in which these events connect to our key term “Manifest Destiny,” and we will also learn about the lasting ripple effects that these horrific times have had on the U.S. education system and on California Natives today.


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