1. How does a management style impact on the effectiveness of a police chief? Which style works best?
NOTE: When referencing management styles, be sure to cite your researched resources in APA format.
2. What does it take to become a police officer? What are the three categories of people seeking a police position in a police organization?
ALL RESPONSES SHOULD BE COMPREHENSIVE AND DETAILED. THEY MUST BE SUPPORTED BY OUTSIDE REFERENCE SOURCES OTHER THAN THE COURSE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL.
This week’s reading gives you basic technical information about passwords and encryption, and how to recover data protected by these mechanisms. There is also a section on Steganography, which literally translated means “covered writing.” When some people think of steganography, or “stego,” they think of documents or other data files being hidden in other file types (usually image/picture files). This is something that is used frequently in secreting child pornography to avert detection. Interestingly, the use of stego goes much farther back than the use of computers.
Like cryptology, steganography is used to hide something in something else. So, even though a code breaker can detect the hidden code, they may not be aware that the code actually contains a different message. Cryptography scrambles a message so that it is unreadable, but still visible, while stego camouflages data to hide it or make it undetectable. This course is not meant to teach you about the technical details of encryption or passwords or steganography (entire books are written on each of those subjects), but rather to help you understand their place in the criminal justice process.
Does a warrant give you the authority to break passwords protecting information or to decipher encrypted data? This is a very important question. As many of you have discussed in our previous week’s discussions, it is important to make sure you know the limits of your warrant. But while you are conducting a search with a properly executed warrant, you may come across other information that is not included in your scope, but is still evidence of a crime. For example, imagine you are searching a hard drive for information related to a fraud scheme. While you are looking through the files you come across a picture that is obviously child pornography, but you do not have child pornography addressed in any way within your warrant. What do you do? The proper response is to stop the search and obtain another warrant for evidence related to child pornography. The same thing applies to discovering encrypted data. In your affidavit you should explain that criminals sometimes encrypt files that contain evidence. Some may even use steganography techniques to hide other files.
For this week’s discussion, complete the following questions below in detail. Please discuss thoroughly and substantively in your post. You are not required to respond to a classmate in this week’s discussion, however, respond in a thorough, substantive, intelligent way to your fellow classmates will add to our discussion and learning of this week’s topic!
1) List and explain five (5) examples of how steganography were used BEFORE the advent of computers.
2) List and explain five (5) examples of how encryption (or cryptology) were used BEFORE the advent of computers.
3) Discuss how steganography and encryption could be used legitimately, and why this could cause you a problem as a computer forensic examiner.
There are four major activities in drug law enforcement:
Source Control – activities targeting cultivation, manufacturing and production of controlled dangerous substances in foreign countries
Interdiction – preventing the successful smuggling of controlled dangerous substances into the United States. This focuses on the smuggling methods of sea, air and land which includes aircraft, vessels, personnel (body carry, swallowing) and parcel shipments among others.
Street-level enforcement – undercover and informant driven investigations targeting the retail sales level of drug trafficking. The text identified the following tactics:
Reversals – Undercover operations where law enforcement poses as drug traffickers
Controlled buy – Undercover operations where confidential informants are used to may purchases of contraband under the direct supervision and direction of a law enforcement investigator
Undercover buy – Direct purchase of controlled dangerous substances by the undercover officer from the target
Knock and Talk – overt investigational tactic where fully identified law enforcement makes contact with individuals at a location, usually a residence, and consent to search the residence is obtained
Correctional system – this could also be described as prosecution or courts. Once the defendants are in the correctional system, they have been convicted. The federal penalties for drug trafficking are often times much higher at the federal level as opposed to the state. Also, the effectiveness of federal prosecutions is usually much higher in the areas with the drug trafficking activity.
These areas of drug enforcement are all challenging and important tactics in the criminal justice approach to the drug issue. Of the four tactics: source control, interdiction and corrections occur primarily in the federal arena (although some state jurisdictions can effectively prosecute cases, federal prosecutions are much more effective). For members of the community, drug enforcement means the buy-busts (controlled and undercover operations), search warrants and reversals that provide the greatest impact to our quality of life.
For this discussion question, please address the following:
How do the different levels of the criminal justice system (federal, state and local) interface to accomplish these “street level enforcement” objectives? Give examples of how this would work and please search the library database, internet NEWS sources or web sites for criminal justice agencies (hint: DEA is a good one!) to provide examples to support your position. Be surew to cite your sources.