Attitudes: Evaluating the social world

Guided Response: Review several of your colleagues’ posts and respond to at least two of your peers by 11:59 p.m. on Day 7 of the week. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful interactive discourse in this discussion.

Considering your colleague’s chosen person, was the theoretical approach he or she selected appropriate?
Suggest another perspective that might be used to assess this person, and provide a rationale as to why the perspective may be more effective.
Consider the ethical implications indicated by your colleague. Review the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and describe the issues present in assessing personality using only the information available in popular media.

Student One: Nita
Barack Hussein Obama was the ever first black president of the united states of America the free world. In my opinion he one of the greatest leader of our generation maybe he was ahead of our time as well. During his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills into law. The main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (often referred to as “Obamacare”, shortened as the “Affordable Care Act”), the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and they Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi was killed by NATO-assisted forces, and he also ordered the military operation that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After seeming what America was missing about health care and equal pay, he makes me think of psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality.

After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was fully legalized in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba.

psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality.

Freud’s psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory, but the psychodynamic approach includes all theories that were based on his ideas, e.g., Jung (1964), Adler (1927) and Erikson (1950).

The words psychodynamic and psychoanalytic are often confused. Remember that Freud’s theories were psychoanalytic, whereas the term ‘psychodynamic’ refers to both his theories and those of his followers. Freud’s psychoanalysis is both a theory and therapy.

Sigmund Freud (writing between the 1890s and the 1930s) developed a collection of theories which have formed the basis of the psychodynamic approach to psychology. His theories are clinically derived – i.e., based on what his patients told him during therapy. The psychodynamic therapist would usually be treating the patient for depression or anxiety related disorders.

Behavioral therapies are based on the theory of classical conditioning. The premise is that all behavior is learned; faulty learning (i.e. conditioning) is the cause of abnormal behavior. Therefore, the individual must learn the correct or acceptable behavior.

An important feature of behavioral therapy is its focus on current problems and behavior, and on attempts to remove behavior the patient finds troublesome.

This contrasts greatly with psychodynamic therapy (re: Freud), where the focus is much more on trying to uncover unresolved conflicts from childhood (i.e. the cause of abnormal behavior). Examples of behavior therapy include: Obama even if you don’t agree by make same sex marriage by changing the behavior we were able to learn new behavior

Trait – traits is a personality trait when a people’s characteristic reflects patterns thoughts. Behaviors and feelings. Personality traits stability, consistency, and imply some people who sores high trait like extraversion is expected to be sociable uncomfortable situations and overtime, trait psychology believe that the idea of people differs from one other in where they stand on basic trait dimension that continue overtime and across situation. The widely used system of trait is called the five factors models. The five-factor model are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The major big five traits can be divided into facts to give finer grained into someone personality. In some theorists argue there are some trait that can’t be captured but the big five factor model. Judgment of the trait argue that people don’t act consistent from one situation to the next and people can be influence by situational forces. There is one major debate in the field that concerns the power of people traits in which they find the sieves predictors, of their behavior. The major contributors are Sigmund Freud with the psychodynamic theory looking at the connection between nature and nurture. Eysenck believing that people inherit a type of nervous that affect them from learning and adapting to their environment. with furthered research Eysenck realize that people behavior could be presented in two dimensions; introversion/extroversion neuroticism/ stability Eysenck called this second order personality traits.

Social learning theory- learning/social this is a theory where you learn new behavior while watching other, this behavior can be learning by just looking or given instruction. Learning can also be gained by reward and punishments better known as vicarious reinforcement. this is a theory where you learn new behavior while watching other, this behavior can be learning by just looking or given instruction. Learning can also be gained by reward and punishments better known as vicarious reinforcement the major creator is Albert Bandura, Albert believe “reciprocal determinism”, that your environment can cause your behavior, at the time he was studying adolescent aggression, but found out that your behavior can change the environment later bandura learn there was a link with between behaviorist and cognitive due to fact of the mind and the motivation theory.

Humanistic – humanistic is an approach were theorists believe people are born with a good bone in their body. Its inspire to view we person humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the psyche. It is linked to the emerging field of transpersonal psychology. Is the theory that studies the person uniqueness in an individual and for me this is Barack Obama is a one of a kind people. Roger and Maslow agree that people seek to better their life mentally as well as physically. There was other that help with the making theory of humanistic Skinner, Freud, Wundt. That had their theory in why humanistic how individuals perceive and interpret events.

References

Hyman, H. H., & Sheatsley, P. (1956). Attitudes Toward Desegregation. Scientific American, 195:35-39.

Freud, A. (1936). Ego & the mechanisms of defense.

Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: H. Holt and. Company.

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Vicarious reinforcement and imitative learning. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(6), 601.

Baron, R. A., Byrne, D., & Suls, J. (1989). Attitudes: Evaluating the social world. Baron et al, Social Psychology. 3rd edn. MA: Allyn and Bacon, 79-101.

Festinger, L., Schachter, S., & Back, K. (1950). Social processes in informal groups.

Baron, R. A., Byrne, D., & Suls, J. (1989). Attitudes: Evaluating the social world. Baron et al, Social Psychology. 3rd edn. MA: Allyn and Bacon, 79-101.

Second student: Paul
Personality Theory at Work in Popular Media

“There is nothing wrong with America that cannot be cured by what is right in America.” – President Bill Clinton

William (Bill) Jefferson Blythe III was born in Hope, Arkansas, on August 19, 1946. His father was killed in a traffic crash three months earlier. At the age of four, his mother remarried to Roger Clinton in Hot Springs, Arkansas. While in high school, he assumed the family name of Clinton. The relationship between his mother, Virginia Kelley, and his stepfather, Roger, were many times both verbally and physically abusive. His mother filed for divorce when Bill was sixteen. Three months after the divorce, the Clinton’s reconciled and remarried in 1962. Bill’s stepfather died five years later.

Bill’s early academics were exceptional and, after learning to play the saxophone, he seriously considered becoming a musician. One of Clinton’s major life milestones was meeting President John F. Kennedy at the White House while Clinton was in high school and serving as a delegate to Boys Nation. That meeting changed his direction from musician to wanting to enter public service.

He later graduated from Georgetown University and was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford University before receiving a law degree from Yale University. That same year, 1973, he entered politics in his home state of Arkansas. After losing a campaign for Congress, he married Hillary Rodham, a graduate of Wellesley College and also a Yale Law School graduate. Chelsea, their daughter, was born later in 1980. In 1978, Clinton became Governor of Arkansas following service as that state’s Attorney General. In 1992, the team of Bill Clinton and Tennessee Senator Al Gore defeated George (H.W.) Bush in the race for President and Vice President of the United States. Clinton became the 42nd (and third-youngest) President of the United States and was the first from the “Baby Boomer” generation.

Six years later, in 1998, Bill Clinton became only the second sitting U. S. president to be impeached by the House of Representatives following personal issues surrounding the White House intern Monica Lewinsky. He was tried in the Senate and was acquitted of the charges causing his impeachment in the House of Representatives. He appeared on national television to apologize for his conduct and went on to have very high public approval ratings.

Clinton’s administration found success in national and global affairs through the use of peace-keeping forces in Bosnia and Kosovo and the bombing of Iraq under Saddam Hussein when Hussein halted United Nations inspectors from seeking evidence of construction of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. He is credited with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), welfare reform, and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). He left office with the highest “end-of-office” approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II.

Psychodynamic:

Bill Clinton’s personality development from his formative years to adulthood would be supported from the psychodynamic perspective. During this period, as Freud theorized, childhood experiences can shape personality. In fact, nominally within a span of three years, a child can begin to learn new things as that child interacts with its environment. Again, based on Freud’s theory, the child would begin learning moral and ethical limits set on it from the child’s parents, teachers, and society. During his early years, Bill’s mother, Virginia, was the emotional center of his life. This extended well into his adulthood. This tends to corroborate Alfred Adler’s premise that humans are born with an innate sense of vulnerability and it is the realization of that vulnerability that pushes them toward a desire for some sense of superiority, although it could be construed that this sense could be substituted for having greater knowledge and authority.

Behavioral:

The critical point of consideration here is that this theory is concerned with the acquisition of behavior through conditioning. Again, referring back to Bill Clinton’s strong relationship with his mother, this would seemingly be a source for his personality development from the behavioral perspective. Following with this construct, it could be said that Bill’s responses to his experiences were a product of the environment in which he was raised. Ms. Kelley was quoted as calling herself “…a public pesona…”

Trait:

The trait perspective can be directly applied to Bill Clinton’s personality. Gordon Allport proposed three main levels of traits identified as Cardinal Traits, Central Traits, and Secondary Traits that influence personality and behavior. Bill Clinton’s development of Cardinal Traits – those traits having dominance in the person’s life – can be traced back to his strong relationship with his mother, Virginia. These traits blend with his Central Traits – those forming the basic foundation of his personality – again having origins with his family upbringing as well as further development during his high school years. His Secondary Traits, those relating to attitudes and personal preferences manifest themselves during his early academic career as well. Hans Eysenck’s model of personality assessment would have applicability here, using Eysenick’s universal traits of introversion/extraversion, neuroticism/emotional stability, and psychoticism. It can also be argued that the “Big Five” characteristics can be found in the personality of Bill Clinton. The “Big Five” traits are: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. At least four of these five can be seen exhibited by Bill during his formative political years through his presidential administration to the present day.

Learning/Social:

Albert Bandura theorized that a person will learn from another person by observing, imitating, or modeling that behavior. It is clear that Bill Clinton’s relationship with his mother, specifically, had direct bearing on his formative learning. Even Jean Piaget’s theory of “Four Stages of Cognitive Development” have validity. If we follow Bill’s development, there were significant life events occurring during all four stages. From the 0-2 year period (Sensorimotor) to the 11+ year period (Formal Operations) , there were family deaths (father and stepfather), remarriages (mother and stepfather), and high school events (meeting John F. Kennedy).

Humanistic:

From the humanistic perspective, Bill Clinton’s personality development could be argued as generally following Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow’s theory stated that the fulfillment of human needs will culminate in self-actualization. Self-actualization is considered to have these elements: acceptance of facts, lack of prejudice, problem solving, spontaneity, creativity, and morality. Some would argue that the morality element may be suspect however. Carl Roger’s five critical elements for the “fully-functioning” personality are generally present as well. Those traits can be described as: 1.) open to experience (with both positive and negative emotions); 2.) existential living (having different experiences and avoiding prejudgments); 3.) trust feelings (feelings, instincts, intuition); 4.) creativity (creative thinking and risk-taking); 4.) fulfilled life (generally satisfied with life but always seeking challenges).

The ethical implications of evaluating Bill Clinton through the popular media are minimal. While he had both a love/hate relationship with the media and his administration was “colored” by his perceived moral lapse as well as his impeachment and subsequent acquittal, these events pale in comparison to other past and current events. From a general ethics standpoint, all information is public record and source materials have been vetted (presumably) prior to release and publication.

For a person as dynamic as Bill Clinton, it is difficult to isolate one theoretical approach to best describe his personality. Clearly, for a someone having the motivation and capability to reach such a high level of public recognition and popularity, there has to be a combination of approaches to adequately describe that personality.

References:

Churchill, S., & Mruk, C. (2014). Practicing what we preach in humanistic and positive psychology. American Psychologist, Volume 69. Issue 1. Pp.90-92. 3p. doi:10.1037/a0034868

Cloninger, S. (2013). Theories of personality: Understanding persons. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Hayes, S. (2012).Humanistic psychology and contextual behavioral perspectives. Psychotherapy, Volume 49. Issue 4. Pp.455-460. 6p. doi:10.1037/a0027396

Post, J. (2010). The psychological assessment of political leaders: With profiles of Saddam Hussein and William Jefferson Clinton. University of Michigan Press. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ashford-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3414702.

Renshon, S. (2000). After the fall: The Clinton presidency in psychological perspective. Political Science Quarterly. Volume 115. Issue 1. Pp. 41-65. 25p.

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