effect of chewing gum Assignments Custom Assignments Help

Objectives:

  • To investigate the effects of chewing on attention and speed of cognitive processing.
  • To verify of the hypothesis that chewing can induces high cognitive performance

Background

  • Earlier studies have examined the relationship between chewing and cognitive enhancement that associate with memory and attention
  • The effect of chewing on the cognitive performance has become a controversial.

Studies pro

  • the gum chewing promotes the blood flow in regional cerebral and the enhance the delivery of glucose.
  • The improvement of sustained attention and language- based task attention
  • the suggestion of chewing can accelerate the cognitive processing and enhance the concentration.
  • the chewing has shortened the reaction times.
  • The performance of memory functions do not improve by chewing on contrary, it has adverse effects on tonic and alertness.
  • The deceleration of vigilance task.
  • The lack of acceleration of sustained attention in 2006

Expermintal design 

  • Design: the study was conducted to examine the effect on chewing gum on the speed of cognitive processing during ANT.
  • The Attention Network Test (ANT) is designed task that test alerting, orienting, and executive control.

The attentional network test ANT contained two cue conditions(no cue and center cue) and two targets (Congruent and Incongruent).

  • Subjects
  • 17 healthy young participants
  • Participants performed two ANT with and without chewing gum
  • the brains’ performance data of 17 participants were analyzed during attention tasks by using f(MRI).

 

Method

  • Participants had performed the ANT test with and without chewing gum.
  • Each participant was instructed to look at images of arrows on the screen and selected the correct direction.
  • The duration time was 10 minutes between each session chewing gum condition and control condition.
  • They used a hard type of gum that is tasteless and odorless in order to avoid any effects rather than mastication.
  • They assessed the reaction time (RT) and for each condition and behavioral effects including alerting and conflict effects.

 

Results

  • The validation of adapted version of ANT for fMRI even with shorter trail time comparing with previous studies.
  • The effect of chewing gum on mean RT was significant shorter regardless the accuracy- speed in of both conditions.
  • The attention level is high during the ANT due to the number of trials was 45% less.
  • Subjects were able to maintain their attention while they were waiting for the next trail because the interval was 23% shorter compared with Fan’s study (2005), which was 47%.
  • Reaction times (RT) were significantly shorter during the chewing gum.
  • Chewing gum increases the level of arousal and alertness, which can lead to enhancement in cognitive processing.
  • The obtained results were supported the previous studies that reported the chewing could improve cognitive performance.
  • The chewing gum induces a positive mood which reduce the stressful noise produce from MRI scanner.

Discussion

 

  • The obtained results were supported the previous studies that reported the chewing improves cognitive performance.
  • These results suggested that regions of the brain that related to motor, alertness, and attention can be activated during chewing conditions, thus, these effects can improve cognitive performance.
  • What do I think?
  • I personally have experienced the effect of chewing gum during exams where I became more concentrated and less stressed.
  • Problem:
  • The sample size was small (17 healthy young adults).
  • Increasing the sample size and involving elderly people.
  • Implication:
  • Are the effects of chewing on cognitive performance sustainable and how long these effects last?
  • Future research:
  • The effects of chewing on mood enhancement and stressful reduction

 

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