PICO QUESTION & SYSTEMIC REVIEW

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Type of template:  Therapy/Treatment/Intervention PICO Question Template (Questions With an Explicit Comparison): In_______(Population), what is the effect of ______(Intervention), in comparison to ______(Comparative/alternative intervention), on _______(Outcome)? My Question:  In Adults, what is the effect of Long-acting Injectable, in comparison to Oral Second-generation Antipsychotics on the Safe and Effective Treatment of Schizophrenia?  GUIDELINES FOR: PIO/PICO Question and Systematic Review of the Evidence Paper Asking evidence-based questions is the starting point for evidence-based practice.  Please select “Question Templates for Clinical Foreground Questions: PIO and PICO,” and formulate a PIO or PICO question about a clinical nursing problem for outcome evaluation in your area of nursing expertise. Wording clinical inquiries in PIO or PICO formatted questions allows for a targeted literature search. The best evidence on which to base practice can be found in the form of systematic reviews (meta-analyses [Quantitative] and meta-syntheses [Qualitative]). These systematic reviews are often the groundwork for developing clinical practice guidelines.~ After formulating your PIO or PICO question, please perform a literature search to find a Systematic Review (meta-analysis [Quantitative] or meta-synthesis [Qualitative]) of the literature that relates to the question you have developed. You will then write a critique appraising the evidence included in the systematic review. ~Please note: When formatting your paper, each critique category should be written as headings in APA format in your paper with the questions and answers for each category written in paragraph form under the heading.~ Please ensure that you use APA format: 12 point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, headings in boldfaced, upper and lower case type. The paper should have a title page and reference page.      Grading Rubric: PIO/PICO Question and Systematic Review of the Evidence Paper: 1)  Formulation of PIO/PICO Question. Total Points: 15 2)  Systematic Review Critique Guideline Questions a.  The Problem: Did the report clearly state the research problem and/or research questions? Is the scope of the project appropriate? Were concepts, variables, or phenomenon adequately defined? Was the approach to integration adequately described and was the approach appropriate? 10 Points ~b.  Search Strategy: Did the report describe criteria for selecting primary studies, and are the criteria defensible? Were the bibliographic databases used by the reviewers identified, and are they appropriate and comprehensive? Were keywords identified, and are they exhaustive? Did the reviewers use adequate supplementary efforts to identify relevant studies? 10 Points ~ c.  The Sample: Did the search strategy yield a good and thorough sample of studies? If an original report was lacking key information, did reviewers attempt to contact the original researchers for additional information or did the study have to be excluded?  10 Points ~ d.  Quality Appraisal: Did the reviewers appraise the quality of the primary studies? Did they use a well-defined set of criteria or a well-validated quality appraisal scale? Did two or more people do the appraisals, and was interrater agreement reported? Was appraisal information used appropriately in selecting studies or analyzing results?  10 Points ~ e.   Data Extraction: Was adequate information extracted about the study design, sample characteristics, and study findings? Were steps taken to enhance the integrity of the dataset (i.e. were two or more people used to extract and record information for analysis?) 10 Points ~ f.   Data Analysis—General: Did the reviewers explain their method of pooling and integrating the data? Was the analysis of data thorough and credible? Were tables, figures, and text used effectively to summarize findings? 10 Points ~ g.  Conclusions: Did the reviewers draw reasonable conclusions about the quality, quantity, and consistency of evidence relating to the research question? Are limitations of the review/synthesis noted? Are implications for nursing practice and further research clearly stated? 15 Points ~ 3)  APA format, grammar, spelling, on-time submission. 10 Points

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