Use Unit 4 IP assignment (which you already did for me) and add on (the topic was on racial profiling). I have attached the last assignment in order to complete this assignment.
In the previous assignment, you developed a position paper for the research topic that you have identified and explored. You have recommendations for change, revocation,
modification, and addition to the research topic. Your research topic has come from an issue, problem, or policy of law enforcement, corrections, or the court system. In this
assignment, you will revise your Key Assignment Draft based on instructor and peer feedback and you will evaluate an alternative position to your selected topic that was not
addressed in your original Key Assignment Draft.
First, revise your Week 4 Key Assignment based on instructor feedback and peer responses.
Next, add to your final Key Assignment draft by addressing the following in 4–5 pages:
Select 1 alternative to your position addressed in the Week 4 Key Assignment regarding your selected topic:
What major points are argued by proponents of this alternative position? Explain in detail.
Conduct research on this alternative position and evaluate the arguments.
Do the arguments hold any merit? Why or why not?
What policies currently exist that support these arguments? Explain in detail.
Which position is more significant for improving the current state of the criminal justice system? Explain in detail.
Remember to use academic and scholarly sources to support your arguments.
Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.
Please submit your assignment.
For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.
Mays; Ruddell: Ch. 15 & 16
Design and present effective presentations utilizing current technologies
Develop critical thinking and problemsolving
skills, and demonstrate those skills in activities, which may include weekly discussions, presentations, case studies, or a
Evaluate alternative positions of thought regarding issues, problem areas and policies
Research and evaluate a position regarding an issue, problem area, or policy, and effectively defend their position using researchbased
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• The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) expresses racial profiling as the actions of the law administration officers of directing people as suspects to a crime centered on the entity’s ethnicity, race, nationality, and religion, rather than viewing the elements of suspicion or evidence based on individuals.
• In the United States of America, racial/ethnic profiling done based on counterterrorism, as a level of administering law transpires amid the diverse policing activities conducted in areas such as identity checks, border control, et cetera (Legewie, 2016).
• Therefore, as much as ethnic profiling is said to be done as a means of countering crime, and especially terrorism, these acts have also been identified as discrimination to several ethnic groups such as the African American and Latino communities under the lens of both international and national laws regarding this societal issue.
Thesis: Therefore, this paper serves as an evaluation of racial profiling as it occurs in the United States of America, and a proposition policy to enhance racial profiling regarding racial discrimination on non-whites by the law enforcement police.
• The impression of ethnic profiling is a widespread phenomenon experienced in the United States. This popularity has risen from the vast media highlights of the high prevalence with cases that regard racial profiling.
• Such has been seen with police harassment and brutality against American people of Latin and African descent. The sources also announce that this concept has spread to the Muslim, Arab and Asian communities.
• This spread, therefore, warrants for a closer check to the situation as it is globally becoming a significant concern to the social community (Legewie, 2016).
• The issue that needs to be solved is to stop racial profiling with the law enforcement of the United States against the persons of Latin and African backgrounds.
• This issue has been identified as a societal problem given that the police have been reported to harass and to some extent, brutalize people from the minority racial classification.
• Such has resulted to fear among the racial groupings in that the comprehensive target of the police on a specific racial group on the police victimization of innocent people based on their appearance or accent (Lu, S., Han, Z., Hung, M. C., Xu, J., Xu, Y., Zheng, P., … & Kang, Y. 2019).
• Racial profiling has been designed on the notion stereotypes that the whites are ideally regarded as useful, leaving specifically the blacks and Latinos as dangerous ethnic groups. Such has been identified from biased traffic stops, body search, arrests, detention, and questioning, among other ‘biased’ law enforcement activity. Such then calls for the need to change with the law enforcement department regarding racial profiling in the United States using the following policy.
Policy: In matters regarding the activities of law enforcement, the police should act on any individual based on evidence and considerable suspicion and not on their physical appearances. Availability of evidence must be adhered to when it comes to cases of arrest and detention.
• Since racial profiling as experienced in the USA has been identified as beneficial to the community regarding crime deterrence (Persico, 2002), it cannot be entirely dismissed.
• However, placing an auxiliary policy that reduces the identified negativity with the current practice would be beneficial in easing the current difficulty experienced by the communities that are majorly targeted.
• Therefore, this policy would aid in easing the current focus with the police on Americans of Latin and African backgrounds.
The validity of Change on Racial Profiling
• Give that the United States law enforcement officially implements the recommended change according to the proposed policy, the biasness of racial profiling that affects the Americans with Latin and African background would be limited. Specifically, this policy would ensure that policing is done based on evidence that amounts to creating the appropriate degree of suspicion.
• Therefore, the police would only act on the individuals or groups that appear to be suspicious or be associated with direct evidence of a crime. However, this situation begs for the definition of suspicious given that this term is broad.
• To narrow down on the attribute of suspicion, the subject ought to manifest the characteristics of nervousness, mental discomfort, nervous glancing, over speeding, and tunnel vision. These signs would show that an individual is suspicious (Hill, Womble & Rohling, 2015) and therefore, can be policed by the law enforcement officers.
• On the other hand, arrests and detention of racial groupings should be made without any bias. They should be based on the evidence collected or observed and not according to the physical appearance or accent of a subject.
• Employing the suggested policy would be done from a national scale to ease the identified problem of increased police harassment to the African, Arab, Asian, and Latin communities.
• Currently, non-white immigrants in the United States, especially the Latin, black and Asian communities have been racially profiled and discriminated when regarding policing as supported by the laws of the United States federal government. Such has been formed from the anxiety created by the adulterated fundamental notion that non-whites are predisposed to crime (Glaser, Spencer & Charbonneau, 2014).
• Given that the current racial profiling in the USA invokes negative feeling of discrimination and bias (Antonovics & Knight, 2009), the proposed policy would ease this detrimental effect since policing would be done based on valid suspicion given by the redefinition of suspicion. For arrests and detention, concrete evidence must be available. This policy would ensure that the police would need to observe these criteria before moving forth to police an individual.
• To identify the immediate outcome of the policy, a deductive approach is employed under the hypothesis that: The proposed policy would reduce the negativity associated with the current racial profiling by the American law enforcement department.
• According to (Petrocelli, Piquero & Smith, 2003), regulating the criteria used to apply racial profiling in the USA would ease the current negativity associating the law enforcement officers on racial profiling regarding the discrimination of non-whites.
• Therefore, this policy regulation on racial profiling would reduce the rate of discrimination in the United States in areas such as traffic checks. The streets, among other public places where (Teasley, Schiele, Adams & Okilwa, (2018) informs that Asian, Latin and African Americans get discriminated by getting rampant stops and searches when compared to whites.
• Racial profiling has been identified to be an excellent strategy for deterring crime in the United States
• Police action based on racial profiling has been identified as a societal problem to non-whites, especially the Latin, African American, Arab, and Asian Americans in public areas.
• The policy proposed suggests regulations on policing based on the subject attribute of suspicion and availability of evidence for an individual to get questioned, frisked arrested or detained. That police action should not be conducted based on physical appearances.
• Given the broad nature of suspicion, this policy identifies suspicion to mean manifesting the attributes of nervousness, mental discomfort, nervous glancing, over speeding, and tunnel vision.
• The outcomes of the policy regulation on racial profiling identified are reducing the adverse treatment of non-whites by the police and,
• The refinement of the identification strategy of criminals based on suspicion and evidence identified. Such would reduce the feeling of being discriminated by the American law enforcement police, therefore solving the problem identified.
• Additionally, the policy would allow the police to focus on the real suspects.
Antonovics, Kate., & Knight, Brian. (2009). A New Look at Racial Profiling: Evidence From the
Boston Police Department. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91 (1), 163-177.
Retrieved from https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/sites.brown.edu/dist/d/75/files/2019/05/A-New-Look-at-Racial-Profiling.pdf
Glaser, Jack., Spencer, Katherine., & Charbonneau, Amanda. (2014). Racial Bias and Public Policy. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(1), 88-94
Legewie, Joscha. (2016). Racial Profiling and Use of Force in Police Stop: How Local Events Trigger Periods of Increased Discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 122(2), 379-424. Retrieved from https://jlegewie.com/files/Legewie-2016-Racial-Profiling-and-Use-of-Force-in-Police-Stops.pdf
Lu, S., Han, Z., Hung, M. C., Xu, J., Xu, Y., Zheng, P., … & Kang, Y. (2019). Racial profiling Harms Science. (New York, NY), 363(6433), 1290
Teasley, M. L., Schiele, J. H., Adams, C., & Okilwa, N. S. (2018). Trayvon Martin: Racial Profiling, Black Male Stigma, and Social Work Practice. Social Work, 63(1), 37-46.
Persico, Nicola. (2002). Racial Profiling, Fairness, and Effectiveness of Policing. American Economic Review, 92(5), 1472-1497. Retrieved from http://www.antoniocasella.eu/nume/Persico_2002.pdf
Petrocelli, Matthew, Piquero, Alex, & Smith, Michael. (2003). Conflict Theory and Racial Profiling: An Empirical Analysis of Police Traffic Stop Data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(1), 1-11.
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