The insect-host relationship

EXAM 3 ANSWER THOSE QUOSTION FROME THIS LINK (( https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-018-0178-8 ))

This exam has a total of 12 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. The correct answer to a numbered question will give you one point. If the answer is partially correct, partial credit will be given as a decimal value. If the answer is incorrect, no credit will be given. If the question is unanswered, no credit will be given so it is better to guess than to leave a question blank. The number of points earned will be divided by the total number of points on the exam and multiplied by 100 to get your grade. Good luck!

1. In the background section the authors wrote “Parasites can impact animal populations by reducing their host’s condition [1], susceptibility to predation [2] or reproductive potential [3] and therefore fitness.” Can a parasite have these impacts if it is a commensal? (1 point)

1. How do you know that your answer to question 1 is correct? (1 point)

1. According to the article, what causes a commensal to become pathogenic? (1 point)

1. In the background section the authors wrote “However, the results of more recent study on baboons in the same area found intervals of vacancy of the sites to be too short to reduce the risk of sharing parasites [14].” In other words, what is this quote saying? (1 point)

1. In the background section the authors wrote “Thus, to assess the influence of a single factor, such as sleeping site ecology, the other elements need to be controlled.” How has to happen for these other elements to be controlled? (1 point)

1. In the background section the authors wrote “Sportive lemurs sleep in tree holes and individuals show high sleeping-site fidelity, whereas wooly lemurs sleep on open branches and shift their sleeping sites frequently [46, 47].” Based on this quote, which species should and shouldn’t have parasites? (1 point)

1. How do you know that your answer to question 6 is correct? (1 point)

1. In the background section in the paragraph before the methods section the authors hypothesized about many things. Are these hypotheses null hypotheses, alternate/alternative hypotheses, or a mixture of both? (1 point)

1. What words in the paragraph before the methods section are evidence that your answer to question 8 is correct? (1 point)

1. Why did you choose the words that you choose for question 9? (1 point)

1. In the effect of host species, sex and season on parasite infection section of the results section the authors wrote “In addition, season clearly had an influence on strongyle infections in A. occidentalis, showing 0.0% prevalence in the dry season, but 37.5% prevalence in the rainy season (Table 2). However, this was not the case for L. edwardsi, as likelihood of infection was not significantly affected by season for neither parasite morphotype (Table 3).” Why didn’t season have an influence on infection on L. edwardsi? (1 point)

1. In the discussion section the authors wrote “In contrast to A. occidentalis, strongyle parasites were observed in both seasons in L. edwardsi. Which season or seasons did A. occidentalis have parasites? (1 point)

EXAM 4 ANSWER THOSE QUOSTION FROME THIS LINK(( https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-018-0181-0 ))

This exam has a total of 13 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. The correct answer to a numbered question will give you one point. If the answer is partially correct, partial credit will be given as a decimal value. If the answer is incorrect, no credit will be given. If the question is unanswered, no credit will be given so it is better to guess than to leave a question blank. The number of points earned will be divided by the total number of points on the exam and multiplied by 100 to get your grade. Good luck!

1. In the background section the authors wrote “Interactions of herbivorous insects with their host plants play important roles in the evolution of a variety of traits.” What is this interaction called? (1 point)

1. In the background section the authors wrote “In some conifers, however, host nutritional quality usually changes as the growing season progresses [18-21].” How are these changes in seasons in conifers different from the changes in seasons in non-conifers? (1 point)

1. In the background section the authors wrote “Despite the differences observed, no study has explored whether host plant species or needle age classes have any impact on the mating activity and reproductive success in adult stage.” Why has no study explored this? What is the difficulty? (1 point)

1. In the background section the authors wrote “The results could also be highly useful for the better understanding of host plant resistance mechanism and for evolving successful management strategies for this pest.” With more details than the quote in question 1, what kind of interaction is indicated in the quote of question 4? (1 point)

1. What one word in the quote of question 4 is evidence that your answer to question 4 is correct? (1 point)

1. Why did you choose this word? (1 point)

1. In the larval and pupal traits section of the results section the authors wrote “The pine species and needle age significantly affected larval performance (Table 1).” How did the authors measure larval performance? (1 point)

1. There is a saying that “fine wine gets better with time.” Does this saying agree with the pine needle food in this study? Yes or no? (1 point)

1. Why did you give the answer to question 8 that you gave? (1 point)

1. In the discussion section the authors wrote “These results are similar as predicted by the slow-growth-high-mortality hypothesis [6].” Is this hypothesis a null hypothesis or an alternate/alternative hypothesis? (1 point)

1. How do you know that your answer to question 10 is correct? (1 point)

1. In the discussion section the authors wrote “Although the potential relationships between female body weight and fecundity have not been well compared, our results support the hypothesis that a high-quality food ingested by larvae promoting higher pupal body weight enhances female fecundity [45, 46].” Is this hypothesis a null hypothesis or an alternate/alternative hypothesis? (1 point)

1. How do you know that your answer to question 12 is correct? (1 point)

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