Malaria is a condition caused by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes that serve as definitive hosts for the protozoan Plasmodium spp. This condition is characterized by infection of erythrocytes, causing their lysis and therefore severe anemia. In addition to severe anemia, there is an exaggerated human host immune response. This response is due to the presence of many parasites released into the bloodstream (ready to infect new red blood cells) and to the metabolic waste of the parasite. The parasite when it was in the erythrocyte degrades its hemoglobin, converting it into hemozoin, which has an adverse effect on macrophages. As a result, there is severe inflammation in the patient accompanied by excessively high fevers. Among the most common species in humans are P. falciparum and P. vivax. But there are also other less frequent ones such as P. ovale and P. malariae. P. falciparum is the most severe species, causing episodes of fever every 48 hours, but between those episodes the fever does not subside completely. That is to say that you are constantly with a fever, between the peaks of high fever, you have other periods with a slightly lower fever. To a large extent this is due to the fact that this species affects all types of red blood cells (young, middle aged and old), constantly causing red blood cell rupture that culminates in severe anemia (loss of oxygen) and inflammation that affects the body in general. P. vivax is the species with the largest geographic distribution. This species gives high episodes of fever (every 48 hours) but with space between them that allows some recovery in the patient. This species only affects young erythrocytes, therefore with this less severity is achieved than that of P. falciparum. Yet this species is responsible for a large number of cases and multiple deaths from malaria. P. malariae is the only human Plasmodium species that can also infect other primates. Chimpanzees, for example, have an infection rate similar to that of humans. This parasite is found in low numbers in humans since this species only infects old erythrocytes, which does not have as damaging an effect as P. falciparum and P. vivax do. Fever episodes are every 72 hours. P. ovale is the rarest of the species that causes malaria in humans. It has a cycle similar to that of P. vivax, with episodes of fever every 48 hours and a fever break in between, but its symptoms are milder than those of P. vivax. ————————————————– ————————————- Answer the following two questions !!! How could the alignment of sequences of two closely related species establish or contribute to a better understanding of evolution? Identify the sequence (s) that have had the most changes and how this is in accordance with the infection capacity or diversity of hosts that it presents. Specify or mark all nucleotides with changes !!!