Think about what you’ve learned this week regarding memory, and about how you study for tests. On the basis of what you have learned, is there something you want to try that might help your study habits?
What does Elizabeth Loftus, in her TED Talk, have to tell us about false memories?
Share your general thoughts on learning and memory based on the reading of BOTH Chapter 5 and Chapter 6, and also respond to the question above on Memory, as well as the question posed in your Introduction to Learning (Chapter 5) about more contemporary interpretations of the 3 standard theories of Learning (conditioning).
What new light do they shed on this question of human behavior?
Since we only have 1 Discussion Board this week you will need to incorporate all of these topics into your single response, so make sure you cover everything required. Your initial post should be thorough and include supportive detail from the material….both the Tutorial as well as the reading. Merely indicating that you “liked” something is not sufficient.
Discussions and replies will be judged on quality of content (indicating a grasp of the concepts being discussed). Make your posts insightful and original.
there is the link for the video https://www.ted.com/talks/elizabeth_loftus_how_reliable_is_your_memory?language=en
Lesson 1: Learning and Conditioning
Basic principles of learning are always operating and always influencing human behavior.
Chapter 5 in your text discusses the two most fundamental forms of learning — classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning. Through them, we respectively learn to associate 1) stimuli in the environment, or 2) our own behaviors, with significant events, such as rewards and punishments. The two types of learning have been intensively studied because they have powerful effects on behavior, and because they provide methods that allow scientists to analyze learning processes rigorously. The chapter describes some of the most important things you need to know about classical and instrumental conditioning, and it illustrates some of the many ways they help us understand normal and disordered behavior in humans. Part of the chapter also introduces the concept of observational learning, which is a form of learning that is largely distinct from classical and operant conditioning.
In this lesson we will cover three primary explanations for how we learn to behave and interact with the world around us. Considering your own experiences, how well do these theories apply to you? Maybe when reflecting on your personal sense of fashion, you realize that you tend to select clothes others have complimented you on (operant conditioning). Or maybe, thinking back on a new restaurant you tried recently, you realize you chose it because its commercials play happy music (classical conditioning). Or maybe you are now always on time with your assignments, because you saw how others were punished when they were late (observational learning). Regardless of the activity, behavior, or response, there’s a good chance your “decision” to do it can be explained based on one of the theories presented here in this discussion of the 3 primary and well-established approaches to understanding human behavior. Having said that, are there newer, more contemporary interpretations of how we as humans make choices and decisions that are not necessarily covered by these 3 theories? Consider that question as you do your reading. You will be asked to address that in this week’s Discussion Board.
Lesson 2: Memory
“Memory” is a single term that reflects a number of different abilities: holding information briefly while working with it (working memory), remembering episodes of one’s life (episodic memory), and our general knowledge of facts of the world (semantic memory), among other types. Remembering episodes involves three processes: encoding information (learning it, by perceiving it and relating it to past knowledge), storing it (maintaining it over time), and then retrieving it (accessing the information when needed). Failures can occur at any stage, leading to forgetting or to having false memories. The key to improving one’s memory is to improve processes of encoding and to use techniques that guarantee effective retrieval. Good encoding techniques include relating new information to what one already knows, forming mental images, and creating associations among information that needs to be remembered. The key to good retrieval is developing effective cues that will lead the rememberer back to the encoded information. Classic mnemonic systems, known since the time of the ancient Greeks and still used by some today, can greatly improve one’s memory abilities.
This week we will be learning about how no single model yet explains all the aspects of human memory, and also the problems of false memories and memory distortions..one of the reasons why “eye witness testimony” in prosecuting a crime is often the least reliable. You’ll see a short video about the “Misinformation Effect” and also a Tutorial.
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