Essay Four (Final Exam): College Due Thursday by 11:59pm Points 100 Submitting a file upload File Types doc, docx, pdf, and rtf Colby College, CommencementIn a speech in 2012, President Obama said “In America, higher education cannot be a luxury. It’s an economic imperative that every family must be able to afford.” People who go to college open up their choices for jobs. Many jobs these days require a college degree. Plus, college graduates have less chance of losing their jobs. However, Stephanie Owen and Isabel Sawhill in their article in They Say/I Say “Should Everyone Go to College?” say that . . . while on average the return to college is highly positive, there is a considerable spread in the value of going to college. A bachelor’s degree is not a smart investment for every student in every circumstance. (332) In an essay of your own either agree, disagree, or partially agree with their argument that a bachelor’s degree is not a smart investment for every student in every circumstance. Support your argument with evidence from several (at least three) credible sources (sources you find beyond the source article). Use one of the following templates for your thesis: Stephanie Owen and Isabel Sawhill are mistaken because they overlook ________________________________. Stephanie Owen and Isabel Sawhill’s claim that __________________________ rests upon the questionable assumption that ______________________________. Stephanie Owen and Isabel Sawhill are surely right about ____________________ because recent studies have shown that ________________________________. Stephanie Owen and Isabel Sawhill are right that ________________________, but they seem on more dubious ground when they claim that ____________________________. While Stephanie Owen and Isabel Sawhill are wrong when they claim that __________________________, they are right that ______________________________. The paper should be a minimum of 1300 words long (not counting the works cited page) in MLA format. The essay must follow the Basic Essay Outline: BASIC ESSAY OUTLINE-4.pdfPreview the document Introductory Paragraph: Begin with a hook to get the reader interested in the topic. Avoid questions in your hook Avoid personal examples in your hook It could be an interesting fact that illustrates your thesis. Connect the hook to the summary of the source article. The summary should include the title and the author’s name in the first or second sentence. Omit minor details but include all important highlights or main points. Avoid quoting in the summary. Do not include your opinions, interpretations or evaluations. The summary should be a thorough, fair, objective restatement of the original. This should be about 5-7 lines long. Write the summary as though you were writing it for a reader who is unfamiliar with the text. After the summary, you should include your thesis. Use one of the templates from the instructions that shows where you stand on the topic. Do you agree with the author of the source article? Do you disagree with the author of the source article? Why do you agree, or why do you disagree? Tell the reader in a statement. Avoid announcing the thesis statement as if it were a thesis statement. In other words, avoid using phrases such as “The purpose of this paper is . . . . ” or “In this paper, I will attempt to . . . Do not address the reader directly. Avoid phrases like “I am going to talk about” or “This paper will discuss.” Just start explaining your main point. Body Paragraphs: You should have several body paragraphs that support your thesis statement Use the PIE format. Each body paragraph should include a topic sentence that identifies the main idea of the paragraph. A topic sentence also states the point the writer wishes to make about that subject. The topic sentence appears at the beginning of the paragraph. A paragraph’s topic sentence must be general enough to express the paragraph’s overall subject. But it should be specific enough that the reader can understand the paragraph’s main subject and point. Start with a topic sentence. This should be a statement of the point you are making in this paragraph. Then support that point with specific cited examples that show what you mean. Then explain what you mean and how this connects to your thesis. Use Quote Sandwiches: Before adding in a quote or paraphrase introduce it with a signal phrase and a reporting verb. After you have introduced your quote with a signal phrase or reporting verb add in your quote! In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses If there is no author’s name go by the title of the article. If there is no page number then leave the page number out “Here’s a direct quote” (Smith 8). This is a paraphrase for an article that has no author’s name (“Trouble” 22). Now that you’ve added in your quote, explain why the quote is important. What do you think it means? How does it connect with your thesis? Your explanation should be at least as long, or longer than the quote itself. Conclusion Paragraph: Do not discuss the source article. Restate your thesis and summarize the main points you made in your essay. Then tell the reader why what you are talking about is important. Transitions: Make strong transitions between the parts of the essay to link them into a cohesive whole. Think of transitions as bridges between sentences and paragraphs for the reader. These bridges show relationships between ideas. You should ask yourself: “How are the paragraphs linked? Do additional connections need to be identified? Do any of the transitional techniques try to create relationships that are not valid?” The best essay appears effortless; transitions that cultivate well-constructed progressions of thought will improve an essay considerably. Instead of standard transitional devices that are simple, mechanical, and unimpressive, use more sophisticated transitions like paragraph links (word links and idea links). Works Cited Page: Add a Works Cited page at the end of your essay. A works cited page is an alphabetized list (generally by the author’s last name) of all referenced materials used in the body of the essay. Following the author’s name, there is a series of information that more specifically details the reference. There is a special way to order this information, and MLA guidelines provide the “how to” for just about every kind of material–from journals to web sites, to personal interviews. Center the title, “Works Cited” (without quotation marks), at the top of the page. If only one source was consulted, title the page “Work Cited” The Works Cited page should be in hanging indents. In word processing, a paragraph that has all lines but the first indented. When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each works cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order: Author Title of source. Title of container, (book, periodical, website, etc…) Other contributors, (editor, director etc…) Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, (page number or URL) If one of these elements does not apply to your source, then don’t include that element. Arrange Works Cited page entries in alphabetical order by the first term in each entry (the first author’s last name or the title of the work when there is no author). List the sources in alphabetical order by the authors’ last names. Ignore “A,” “And,” and “The” when alphabetizing by title if an author is not listed. Citing our textbook means you are citing an anthology. It should be cited as follows: Last name of the author of the article, First name of the author of the article. “Title of Article.” Title of Book the Article Is Found in, edited by Editor’s Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry. Italicize titles if the source is self-contained and independent. Titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, databases, and websites are italicized. Place titles in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. Articles, essays, chapters, poems, webpages, songs, and speeches are placed in quotation marks. Avoid personal examples Support your claims with evidence from cited, credible sources. Avoid first-person pronouns (“I,” “me,” “my,” “we,” “us,” etc.). Using these expressions in analytical and persuasive essays can make the writing wordy, can make the writer seem less confident of his or her ideas, and can give the essay an informal tone. The use of first-person pronouns is unnecessary in the kinds of essays you are writing for the course. Readers will know that they are reading your thoughts, beliefs, or opinions, so you do not need to state, “I think that,” “I believe that,” or “in my opinion.” Simply delete these expressions from sentences, and you will be left with stronger sentences. Avoid addressing readers as “you.” Addressing readers using second-person pronouns (“you, your”) can make an essay sound informal and can bring assumptions into an essay that are not true. Replace all instances of “you” with words like “someone,” “a person,” or even “one.” Avoid the use of contractions. Contractions are shortened versions of words that use apostrophes in place of letters, such as “can’t,” “isn’t,” “she’s,” and “wouldn’t.” The more formal, non-contracted versions are “cannot,” “is not,” “she is,” and “would not” are preferred in formal writing. Avoid rhetorical questions. Statements are generally preferred in academic papers. “This may not be the best idea” has a much stronger impact than “Is this really the best idea?”
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